Manage User Accounts Transportation In Ancient Rome

The first and most simple vehicle found in Rome, was the plaustrum. It was little more than a flat board carried by four wheels. The wheels were fixed to the axle in a stiff manner and the axle itself was also fabricated tightly to the cart. This made steering of the wagon a cumbersome business and meant a very low efficiency. These problems and the fact that no supple wagon had been invented to bind the animals in the front-only the Celts had invented a balanced harness to pull with-made freight over land costly and time-consuming.The most impressive skill in Roman transportation was the so-called cursus publicus (something like ‘public race course’). This postal service was started by state couriers bringing information and diplomatic instructions into the far reaches of the empire. This developed relatively quickly into the organization of postal diligences that connected the various provinces with each other. These were not really public postal services as they were meant for people employed by the emperor and for the rich and powerful.


The cursus publicus was strictly regulated as far as size and capacity of its vehicles was concerned. Also it was precisely specified who was allowed to drive them, for what purpose and who was responsible for their maintenance. Because of the high cost of constructing and maintaining roads, transportation was managed in accordance with tight stipulations and great care was taken that a relative light maximum weight was allowed for the different modes of transport.When the Roman empire lost its vitality, the cursus publicus became victim of nepotism and misuse. With the demise of Roman central power the excellent qualities of the system disappeared. Only in modern times the cursus publicus would be matched.In general transportation was carried out by ancient customs. Sail boats were given a smooth skin, instead of riveting, and a fully developed keel with front and stern. The ancient Greeks used a square or oblong sail to catch the wind and in case of headwind they employed one or two rows of oarsmen to make headway. The Greeks were the first, as far as we know, to construct a special kind of battle ship with a ram at the front. Also they had freight ships without rowers and these, of course, were totally dependent on the wind. These developments were completed in the time of classical Greece. The Romans adopted both these forms without making any changes.The Romans devoted much more attention to their roads than to transportation by sea. They worked out a remarkable network with carefully planned roads, both as far as the position as the construction were concerned. The road network was stretched out far and wide throughout all the provinces of the empire. Over these roads the legions marched to wherever there was a crisis. The roads also served for the development of trade, but their primary function always remained the maintenance of the imperial dominion.


At the zenith of Roman power trade was connected over land to the cultures of Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and even China and India. But the system of transportation depended on the Roman, Chinese and Mauritanian empires. When these great powers collapsed, the trade routes became ways of invasion for foreign hostile armies. Almost everywhere the road networks became dilapidated for centuries. Freight transport was substituted by troupes of beasts of burden that were able to travel those ancient roads and that were sufficient to carry the lesser stream of goods. It would last till the twelfth century before the situation was improved.

6 Tips To Find A Good Purchasing Agent

Are you looking for a good purchasing agent for your business? If so, you should know that many of the agents may not be qualified. You need to keep in mind that purchasing agents play a great role as far as international trade is concerned. They act like a bridge between buyers and sellers. If you want to choose a good sourcing or purchasing agent, we suggest that you follow the tips given below.

1. Language

The agent you are going to hire should have good command of the language spoken in the target country. This includes both written and spoken English and other languages. You know that language plays a great role in communication between business owners around the globe. Therefore, a good command over the desired language is a quality that your agent should have. If the professional is not well versed in the language that is spoken in that country, how can they be able to talk to the sellers in that country? They won’t be able to communicate and bargain well, which will increase their chance of getting ripped off.

2. Good morality

Your desired agent should know how to behave and protect the interests of foreign buyers in the target country. They should not take you to the scammers in the target country. Aside from this, they should be true to their words. In other words, they should have a high standard of morality. If you know that an agent asks for commission from both the buyer and the seller, you should stay away from them and look for some other agent. A good purchasing agent will never indulge in such acts.

3. Knowledge of import and export

A good sourcing agent should have good relationship with local authorities of the target country. They should be familiar with the policies of that country regarding import and export. Moreover, they should be familiar with the regulations related to import and export, which is very important to avoid lawsuits.

4. Purchasing methods

Your purchasing agent should know how to source or buy different items without killing a lot of time. They should know the best markets where your desired products can be purchased. Aside from this, they should know how they could get the best prices. And if you get a product at the lowest price, you can make the highest profit.

5. Familiarity with the product or industry

The agent should be familiar with the product or service you are interested in. For instance, if you want to buy ductile iron castings, we suggest that you look for an agent who is familiar with these products. There is no doubt that this field has certain terms and they should be familiar with these terms.

6. Knowledge of the international laws

Your sourcing agent should be familiar with international laws and other practices, such as quota issues, anti-dumping issues, tax issues and certification issues, to name a few.