Manage User Accounts Transportation In Ancient Rome

The first and most simple vehicle found in Rome, was the plaustrum. It was little more than a flat board carried by four wheels. The wheels were fixed to the axle in a stiff manner and the axle itself was also fabricated tightly to the cart. This made steering of the wagon a cumbersome business and meant a very low efficiency. These problems and the fact that no supple wagon had been invented to bind the animals in the front-only the Celts had invented a balanced harness to pull with-made freight over land costly and time-consuming.The most impressive skill in Roman transportation was the so-called cursus publicus (something like ‘public race course’). This postal service was started by state couriers bringing information and diplomatic instructions into the far reaches of the empire. This developed relatively quickly into the organization of postal diligences that connected the various provinces with each other. These were not really public postal services as they were meant for people employed by the emperor and for the rich and powerful.


The cursus publicus was strictly regulated as far as size and capacity of its vehicles was concerned. Also it was precisely specified who was allowed to drive them, for what purpose and who was responsible for their maintenance. Because of the high cost of constructing and maintaining roads, transportation was managed in accordance with tight stipulations and great care was taken that a relative light maximum weight was allowed for the different modes of transport.When the Roman empire lost its vitality, the cursus publicus became victim of nepotism and misuse. With the demise of Roman central power the excellent qualities of the system disappeared. Only in modern times the cursus publicus would be matched.In general transportation was carried out by ancient customs. Sail boats were given a smooth skin, instead of riveting, and a fully developed keel with front and stern. The ancient Greeks used a square or oblong sail to catch the wind and in case of headwind they employed one or two rows of oarsmen to make headway. The Greeks were the first, as far as we know, to construct a special kind of battle ship with a ram at the front. Also they had freight ships without rowers and these, of course, were totally dependent on the wind. These developments were completed in the time of classical Greece. The Romans adopted both these forms without making any changes.The Romans devoted much more attention to their roads than to transportation by sea. They worked out a remarkable network with carefully planned roads, both as far as the position as the construction were concerned. The road network was stretched out far and wide throughout all the provinces of the empire. Over these roads the legions marched to wherever there was a crisis. The roads also served for the development of trade, but their primary function always remained the maintenance of the imperial dominion.


At the zenith of Roman power trade was connected over land to the cultures of Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and even China and India. But the system of transportation depended on the Roman, Chinese and Mauritanian empires. When these great powers collapsed, the trade routes became ways of invasion for foreign hostile armies. Almost everywhere the road networks became dilapidated for centuries. Freight transport was substituted by troupes of beasts of burden that were able to travel those ancient roads and that were sufficient to carry the lesser stream of goods. It would last till the twelfth century before the situation was improved.

What It Takes to Be a Certified With ISO

Benefits of ISO International Standards?

JAS-ANZ International Standards guarantees that products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality. For companies, they are strategic tools that help reduce costs by minimizing waste and errors and increasing productivity. They help companies gain access to new markets, in order to bring about equity, for developing countries and facilitate free and fair world trade.

How does JAS-ANZ develop standards?

JAS-ANZ are developed by the people that need them, through a consensus process. Experts from all over the world develop the standards that are required by their sector. This means they reflect a wealth of international experience and knowledge.

The main benefits of JAS-ANZ standards

JAS-ANZ was founded with the idea of answering the fundamental question: “what’s the best way of doing this?”

IMS (integrated management systems)

An integrated management system (IMS) combines all the components which is linked to different enterprises or business in a system, which helps in facilitating management and operation. Quality, environment and safety management systems are generally combined and administered as IMS. These systems are not separate systems but are later merged together, but are integrated with links to similar processes are managed and executed smoothly, without duplication.

As a part of gaining ISO certification it is important to have a good quality management system that not only meets the standards, but it will also improve business processes.

6 KEY STEPS TO ACHIEVING CERTIFICATION

1. Identify your key drivers

Its recommended that a formal is done at a senior management level, your key drivers for implementing a Quality Management System. Such drivers should include improved awareness of the performance of your key processes and the need for continual improvement, as well as any specific customer requirements.

2. Obtain the standard

Purchase a copy of the standard. Search the web for links to relating to your particular sector. Make sure you know the facts from the myths. An illustration, ISO 9001 is applicable to any organization in any industry, not just the manufacturing sector.

3. Define your strategy

To successfully implementation of a Quality Management System, commitment is required from senior management on defining the strategy. Start to formally document a quality policy and objectives following adequate requirements. Ensure that the requirements of the quality policy are measureable to be able to demonstrate continuous improvements.

4. Planning provides resources for

Developing a quality management system requires resources to be made available and realistic timelines allocated ensuring that responsibilities are shared within the organization and not just allocated to the Quality Manager. As the system is developed, this plan should be reviewed by senior management and kept updated. The responsibility for the Quality Management System and the Quality Management representative should be clearly identified. In addition, you may wish to employ a consultant to help develop the system. Make sure that the consultant knows and understands your business and any advice that covers your business as a whole.

5. Know your processes

IS0 9001 requires you to formally describe the interaction between the processes within the management system. This can be achieved by a simple process map specific to

your organization. The map should identify the key processes and also indicate the resources, controls, documentation and records needed to meet your customers’ requirements. Ensure this process map is validated throughout your business to ensure no areas or interactions are missed. As the system is developed this process map should be used, reviewed and updated for its eventual inclusion in the Quality Manual.

6. Determine training needs

ISO 14001, ISO 18001, ASNZ 4801, ISO 27001 requires proper identification of competence requirements for employees coming within the scope of the Quality Management System. Team leaders, employees and internal auditors will all need to meet the requirements of competence, sometimes requiring external training. A range of courses, workshops and seminars are available to meet these needs. Make sure to define how you will demonstrate the effectiveness of training.